The relational data design was introduced by C. F. Codd in 1970. Currently, the is the most widely provided data model.

You are watching: A record is also called a ____.

The relational version has listed the basis for:

Research top top the concept of data/relationship/constraintNumerous database design methodologiesThe conventional database accessibility language dubbed structured query language (SQL)Almost all contemporary commercial database management systems

The relational data model defines the civilization as “a repertoire of inter-related relationships (or tables).”

Fundamental ideas in the Relational Data Model


relation, also well-known as a table or file, is a subset of the Cartesian product the a list of domains identified by a name. And within a table, each row represents a group of connected data values. A row, or record, is additionally known as a tuple. The columns in a table is a field and is additionally referred to together an attribute. Girlfriend can likewise think of it this way: an attribute is supplied to specify the record and a record includes a collection of attributes.

The steps listed below outline the logic between a relation and its domains.

Given n domains are denoted by D1, D2, … DnAnd r is a relation defined on these domainsThen r ⊆ D1×D2×…×Dn


A database is composed of multiple tables and each table holds the data. Number 7.1 mirrors a database that includes three tables.

Figure 7.1. Database with 3 tables.


A database stores piece of info or truth in an arranged way. Understanding exactly how to use and get the most out the databases needs us to understand that an approach of organization.

The major storage devices are dubbed columns or fields or attributes. These residence the straightforward components the data right into which your content have the right to be broken down. Once deciding which fields to create, you must think generically about your information, because that example, drawing out the common components the the info that girlfriend will save in the database and also avoiding the specifics that distinguish one item indigenous another.

Look at the example of an ID map in number 7.2 to check out the relationship between fields and also their data.

Figure 7.2. Instance of an ID card by A. Watt.


A domain is the original sets of atom values supplied to design data. By atomic value, we average that each value in the domain is indivisible as much as the relational model is concerned. Because that example:

The domain the Marital Status has actually a set of possibilities: Married, Single, Divorced.The domain of change has the set of all feasible days: Mon, Tue, Wed….The domain of value is the collection of every floating-point numbers higher than 0 and also less than 200,000.The domain of very first Name is the set of character strings that represents name of people.

In summary, a domain is a collection of acceptable values that a shaft is enabled to contain. This is based on various properties and the data form for the column. Us will comment on data types in another chapter.


Just as the contents of any type of one file or item requirements to be broken down into its ingredient bits that data because that storage in the fields, the link between them additionally needs come be easily accessible so the they can be reconstituted right into their totality form. Records permit us to execute this. Records contain areas that are related, such together a customer or one employee. As listed earlier, a tuple is an additional term provided for record.

Records and fields type the basis of every databases. A straightforward table offers us the clearest snapshot of just how records and fields work together in a database warehouse project.

Figure 7.3. Instance of a an easy table through A. Watt.

The simple table example in number 7.3 mirrors us how fields can organize a variety of various sorts of data. This one has:

A record ID field: this is one ordinal number; that data form is an integer. A PubDate field: this is presented as day/month/year; that data kind is date. An author field: this is displayed as Initial. Surname; that data type is text. A Title ar text: free text have the right to be gone into here.

You can command the database come sift through its data and organize that in a certain way. Because that example, you deserve to request that a selection of documents be restricted by date: 1. All before a given date, 2. Every after a given day or 3. All between two provided dates. Similarly, you can pick to have records sorted by date. Because the field, or record, comprise the data is collection up as a day field, the database reads the information in the day field not just as numbers separated by slashes, yet rather, as days that must it is in ordered follow to a calendar system. 


The degree is the number of attributes in a table. In our example in figure 7.3, the level is 4.

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Properties the a Table

A table has a name that is distinct from all various other tables in the database.There are no duplicate rows; each heat is distinct.Entries in columns are atomic. The table does not save repeating teams or multivalued attributes.Entries from columns are from the same domain based upon their data form including:number (numeric, integer, float, smallint,…)character (string)datelogical (true or false)Operations combining various data varieties are disallowed.Each attribute has a unique name.The succession of columns is insignificant.The sequence of rows is insignificant.