1) as soon as Thomas hunting Morgan overcome his red-eyed F1 generation paris to each other, the F2 generation had both red- and white-eyed flies. Remarkably, every the white-eyed flies were male. What was the explanation for this result?

A) The gene affiliated is top top the Y chromosome. B) The gene involved is on the X chromosome.

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C) The gene involved is on one autosome, yet only in males.

D) other male-specific components influence eye color in flies.

2) i beg your pardon of the adhering to is the meaning of the chromosome theory of inheritance together expressed in the at an early stage twentieth century? A) people inherit certain chromosomes attached come genes. B) Mendelian genes space at specific loci on the chromosome and, in turn, segregate throughout meiosis.

C) No an ext than a single pair that chromosomes deserve to be found in a healthy and balanced normal cell.

D) Natural selection acts on certain chromosome arrays fairly than ~ above genes.

3) Males are more often impacted by sex-linked traits than females since _____. A) masculine hormones such as testosterone often alter the results of mutations on the X chromosome

B) female hormones such together estrogen frequently compensate for the impacts of mutations on the X chromosome C) X chromosomes in males usually have an ext mutations 보다 X chromosomes in females D) males room hemizygous because that the X chromosome

4) SRY is finest described together _____. A) a gene current on the X chromosome that triggers female breakthrough B) an autosomal gene the is required for the expression of gene on the Y chromosome

C) a gene an ar present ~ above the Y chromosome the triggers male advance D) one autosomal gene the is compelled for the expression of genes on the X chromosome

5) In cats, black color fur shade is caused by an X-linked allele; the various other allele at this locus reasons orange color. The heterozygote is tortoiseshell. What kinds of offspring would certainly you intend from the overcome of a black female and an orange male? A) tortoiseshell females; tortoiseshell males

B) black females; orange males C) tortoiseshell females; black males D) orange females; black color males

6) Red-green color blindness is a sex-linked recessive trait in humans. Two civilization with normal color vision have actually a color-blind son. What space the genotypes the the parents?

A) XnXn and XnY

B) XNXN and XnY


D) XNXn and also XNY

7) Cinnabar eye is a sex-linked, recessive characteristics in fruit flies. If a female having actually cinnabar eye is crossed v a wild-type male, what percent of the F1 males will have actually cinnabar eyes?

A) 0% B) 25% C) 50%

D) 100%

8) Normally, only female cats have the tortoiseshell phenotype due to the fact that _____.

A) a masculine inherits only one allele the the X-linked gene controlling hair color

B) the Y chromosome has actually a gene blocking orange coloration

C) just males have the right to have Barr bodies

D) many crossovers on the Y chromosome stop orange colors production

9) In birds, sex is figured out by a ZW chromosome scheme. Males room ZZ and also females room ZW. A recessive lethal allele that causes death of the embryo is sometimes current on the Z chromosome in pigeons. What would be the sex ratio in the offspring that a cross in between a male the is heterozygous for the lethal allele and a typical female?

A) 2:1 male to female

B) 1:2 masculine to female

C) 1:1 masculine to female

D) 3:1 male to female

10) Sex determination in mammals is due to the SRY gene. I beg your pardon of the complying with could allow a human with one XX karyotype to develop a male phenotype? A) the loss of the SRY gene indigenous an autosome B) translocation that SRY to a X chromosome

C) a person with one extra autosomal chromosome D) a human being with one normal and one reduce (deleted) X

11) In humans, clear sex differentiation occurs, not at fertilization, yet after the second month the gestation. What is the first event the this differentiation? A) development of testosterone in masculine embryos B) formation of estrogens in mrs embryos

C) activation that SRY in masculine embryos and masculinization that the gonads

D) activation of SRY in females and also feminization the the gonads

12) Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a serious condition caused by a recessive allele the a gene ~ above the human being X chromosome. The patients have muscles that weaken over time since they have absent or reduced dystrophin, a muscle protein. They hardly ever live past their twenties. How likely is it because that a woman to have this condition?

A) Women have the right to never have actually this condition. B) One-fourth of the daughters of an impacted man would have actually this condition. C) One-half of the daughters of an affected father and also a transport mother could have this condition.

D) just if a woman is XXX might she have actually this condition.

13) every female mammals have one active X chromosome per cell rather of two. What reasons this? A) activation that the XIST gene on the X chromosome that will come to be the Barr body B) activation the the BARR gene top top one X chromosome, which then becomes inactive

C) inactivation that the XIST gene on the X chromosome obtained from the male parental D) attachment of methyl (CH3) teams to the X chromosome the will remain active

14) A man who is an achondroplastic dwarf through normal vision marries a color-blind mrs of regular height. The man"s father was six feet tall, and also both the woman"s parents were of typical height. Achondroplastic dwarfism is autosomal dominant, and also red-green shade blindness is X- linked recessive. How numerous of your daughters could be expected to it is in color-blind dwarfs?

A) none B) half C) one the end of 4 D) three out that four

15) A male who is an achondroplastic dwarf with normal vision marries a color-blind woman of common height. The man"s dad was 6 feet tall, and both the woman"s parents to be of mean height. Achondroplastic dwarfism is autosomal dominant, and red-green color blindness is X- attached recessive. What ratio of their sons would be color-blind and also of regular height?

A) none B) fifty percent C) one the end of 4 D) all

16) Pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy is a human disorder that reasons gradual deterioration of the muscles. Just boys space affected, and also they are always born come phenotypically common parents. Because of the severity that the disease, the boys dice in your teens. Is this disorder likely to be led to by a leading or recessive allele? Is its inheritance sex-linked or autosomal?

A) dominant, sex-linked B) recessive, autosomal C) recessive, sex-linked D) incomplete dominant, sex-linked

17) In birds, sex is determined by a ZW chromosome scheme that is much like the typical XY system seen in humans and many various other organisms, other than that the device is reversed: Males are ZZ (similar come XX in humans) and females are ZW (similar come XY in humans). A lethal recessive allele that reasons death that the embryo occurs on the Z chromosome in pigeons. What would certainly be the sex ratio in the offspring that a cross in between a masculine heterozygous because that the lethal allele and also a regular female?

A) 1:1 male to female

B) 3:1 male to female

C) 1:2 masculine to female

D) 2:1 masculine to female

18) A recessive allele ~ above the X chromosome is responsible for red-green color blindness in humans. A woman v normal vision who father is color blind marries a color-blind male. What is the probability the this couple"s an initial son will be color blind? A) 1/4

B) 1/2 C) 2/3 D) 3/4

19) A guy who tote an allele of one X-linked gene will pass the on to _____.

A) all of his daughters B) half of his daughters C) every one of his sons

D) every one of his children

20) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is inherited together a recessive allele of one X-linked gene in humans. A woman whose father experienced from G6PD marries a typical man. (a) What ratio of your sons is expected to it is in G6PD? (b) If the husband was not normal yet was G6PD deficient, would certainly you adjust your answer in component (a)? A) (a) 100%; (b) no B) (a) 1/2; (b) correctly C) (a) 1/2; (b) no D) (a) zero; (b) no


21) In a Drosophila experiment, a cross was made in between homozygous wild-type females and also yellow-bodied males. All of the result F1s to be phenotypically wild type. However, adult paris of the F2 generation (resulting native matings of the F1s) had actually the characteristics shown in the number above. Take into consideration the following questions:

(a) Is the mutant allele because that yellow human body recessive or dominant? (b) Is the yellow locus autosomal (not X-linked) or X-linked?

A) (a) recessive; (b) X-linked B) (a) recessive; (b) not X-linked

C) (a) dominant; (b) X-linked D) (a) dominant; (b) not X-linked


22) Sturtevant detailed genetic evidence for the presence of 4 pairs that chromosomes in Drosophila in i m sorry of this ways? A) There are four significant functional great of gene in Drosophila. B) Drosophila genes cluster right into four unique groups of linked genes.

C) The overall variety of genes in Drosophila is a lot of of four.

D) Drosophila gene have, on average, four various alleles.

23) i beg your pardon of the adhering to statements is true the linkage? A) The closer 2 genes space on a chromosome, the lower the probability that a crossover will certainly occur in between them. B) The observed frequency of recombination of 2 genes the are much apart from each other has a maximum value of 100%. C) every one of the traits the Mendel studied—seed color, pod shape, flower color, and also others—are as result of genes linked on the same chromosome. D) linked genes are discovered on various chromosomes.

24) just how would one define a testcross entailing F1 dihybrid flies in which more parental-type offspring than recombinant-type offspring are produced?

A) The two genes are closely linked ~ above the very same chromosome.

B) The two genes space linked but on various chromosomes. C) Recombination did not happen in the cell during meiosis. D) Both that the characters are regulated by much more than one gene.

25) What does a frequency of recombination of 50% indicate? A) The 2 genes are likely to be located on various chromosomes. B) every one of the offspring have combinations of characteristics that complement one the the two parents.

C) The genes are situated on sex chromosomes. D) Abnormal meiosis has occurred.

26) What is the an interpretation of one map unit? A) the physics distance between two attached genes B) a 1% frequency of recombination in between two genes C) 1 nanometer the distance in between two genes D) the recombination frequency in between two gene assorting independently

27) Recombination in between linked genes comes around for what reason?

A) Nonrecombinant chromosomes break and then rejoin through one another.

B) independent assortment occasionally fails. C) linked genes travel together at anaphase. D) Crossovers between these genes an outcome in chromosomal exchange.

28) What is an adaptive benefit of recombination between linked genes?

A) Recombination is compelled for independent assortment. B) Recombination must take place or genes will certainly not assort independently. C) new allele combinations space acted upon by organic selection.

D) The pressures on the cell throughout meiosis II results in recombination.

29) Map systems on a affiliation map can not be relied top top to calculation physical ranges on a chromosome because that which the the following reasons? A) The frequency the crossing end varies follow me the length of the chromosome. B) The relationship between recombination frequency and also map devices is various in every individual.

C) physics distances in between genes adjust during the course of the cell cycle. D) The gene bespeak on the chromosomes is slightly various in every individual.


30) between which 2 genes would you intend the highest possible frequency the recombination?

A) A and also W B) E and also G C) A and E

D) A and G


31) In a series of mapping experiments, the recombination frequencies for four different connected genes of Drosophila were determined as displayed in the figure above. What is the order of these gene on a chromosome map? A) rb-cn-vg-b

B) cn-rb-b-vg C) b-rb-cn-vg D) vg-cn-b-rb

37) What is the reason that very closely linked genes are generally inherited together?

A) they are located close with each other on the very same chromosome. B) The number of genes in a cell is greater than the variety of chromosomes.

C) Alleles space paired together throughout meiosis.

D) genes align that means during metaphase i of meiosis.

38) A homozygous tomato plant through red fruit and yellow flowers was crossed with a homozygous tomato plant with golden fruit and white flowers. The F1 all had red fruit and yellow flowers. The F1 were testcrossed by cross them to homozygous recessive individuals and the adhering to offspring were obtained:

Red fruit and also yellow flowers—41 Red fruit and also white flowers—7 gold fruit and yellow flowers—8 gold fruit and white flowers—44

How plenty of map units separate these genes?

A) 17.6 B) 15 C) 17.1

D) 18.1

39) In Drosophila melanogaster, vestigial wing are led to by a recessive allele of a gene the is attached to a gene through a recessive allele that reasons black body color. Morgan overcome black- bodied, normal-winged females and also gray-bodied, vestigial-winged males. The F1 were every gray bodied, regular winged. The F1 females to be crossed to homozygous recessive males to produce testcross progeny. Morgan calculation the map street to be 17 map units. I m sorry of the adhering to is correct around the testcross progeny?

A) black-bodied, normal-winged flies = 17% the the complete B) black-bodied, normal-winged paris PLUS gray-bodied, vestigial-winged flies = 17% that the total C) gray-bodied, normal-winged flies PLUS black-bodied, vestigial-winged paris = 17% of the complete D) black-bodied, vestigial-winged paris = 17% of the total

40) If cell X start meiosis, and nondisjunction that one chromosome occurs in one of its daughter cells throughout meiosis II, what will certainly be the result at the perfect of meiosis? A) all the gametes lower from cabinet X will be diploid. B) fifty percent of the gametes descended from cabinet X will certainly be n + 1, and fifty percent will it is in n - 1.

C) 1/4 the the gametes lower from cell X will be n + 1, 1/4 will be n - 1, and also 1/2 will certainly be n.

D) two of the 4 gametes lower from cabinet X will be haploid, and also two will certainly be diploid.

41) One possible result that chromosomal not correct is because that a fragment to join a nonhomologous chromosome. What is this alteration called? A) deletion B) inversion

C) translocation D) duplication

42) A nonreciprocal crossover causes which the the following products?

A) deletion just B) duplication only C) nondisjunction

D) deletion and also duplication

43) the the complying with human aneuploidies, which is the one that generally has the many severe influence on the wellness of the individual? A) 47, trisomy 21 B) 47, XXY

C) 47, XXX D) 45, X

44) A phenotypically normal prospective couple seeks genetic counseling since the guy knows that he has a translocation the a portion of his chromosome 4 that has been exchanged with a portion of his chromosome 12. Although his translocation is balanced, he and his wife want to recognize the probability the his sperm will be abnormal. What is your prognosis concerning his sperm? A) 1/4 will carry the 2 normal chromosomes, 4 and 12, 1/4 will have actually only the 2 translocation chromosomes and no common chromosomes 4 and 12, and 1/2 will have actually both normal and translocated chromosomes. B) every will carry the same translocation as the father. C) no one will carry the translocation. D) 1/2 will certainly be normal and also the remainder will have actually the father"s translocation.

45) Abnormal chromosomes are commonly found in malignant tumors. Errors such together translocations may ar a gene in near proximity come different manage regions. I beg your pardon of the following might then occur to do the cancer worse? A) rise in nondisjunction

B) expression of unreasonable gene products

C) a to decrease in mitotic frequency D) failure of the cancer cells to multiply

46) A pair has a child with down syndrome. The mommy is 39 year old at the time of delivery. I beg your pardon of the complying with is the most probable cause of the child"s condition? A) The woman inherited this propensity from her parents. B) The mother had a chromosomal duplication.

C) One member of the couple underwent nondisjunction in somatic cell production. D) The mother most most likely underwent nondisjunction during gamete production.

47) What is a syndrome? A) a characteristic face appearance B) a trait the leads to cancer at some phase in life C) a group of traits typically found in conjunction with a certain chromosomal aberration or gene mutation D) a certain characteristic that shows up in conjunction through one certain aneuploidy

48) which of the adhering to is known as a Philadelphia chromosome? A) a human chromosome 22 the has had a particular translocation B) a person chromosome 9 the is discovered only in one kind of cancer C) an animal chromosome uncovered primarily in the mid-Atlantic area the the joined States

D) a chromosome discovered only in mitochondria

49) i beg your pardon of the following is typically true that aneuploidies in newborns? A) A monosomy is more frequent than a trisomy. B) Monosomy X is the just viable monosomy recognized to occur in humans. C) human aneuploidy normally conveys one adaptive advantage in humans. D) one aneuploidy bring about the deletion the a chromosome segment is less serious 보다 a duplication.

50) A mrs is found to have forty-seven chromosomes, consisting of three X chromosomes. I m sorry of the following defines her intended phenotype? A) a female through masculine attributes such together facial hair B) an evident male who is sterile

C) healthy and balanced female of slightly above-average height

D) a sterile female

51) which of the adhering to is an example of monosomy?

A) Turner"s syndrome B) Klinefelter"s syndrome C) under syndrome

D) trisomy X

52) Genomic imprinting is generally due to the addition of methyl (-CH3) teams to C nucleotides and also chemical histone alters to quiet a given gene. If this relies on the sex that the parent that transmits the gene, i m sorry of the following must be true? A) Genes required for early development stages should not it is in imprinted. B) Methylation of this kind must occur an ext in males than in females. C) Methylation need to be reversible in ovarian and also testicular cells. D) The imprints room transmitted only to gamete-producing cells.

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53) Correns discovered that the inheritance of variegated color on the pipeline of details plants was determined only by the maternal parent. What phenomenon defines this pattern? A) ribosome framework B) chloroplasts inheritance

C) genomic imprinting D) sex-linkage

54) Mitochondrial DNA is primarily connected in coding because that proteins required for protein complexes the the electron transfer chain and also ATP synthase. Therefore, mutations in mitochondrial genes would most impact _____. A) DNA synthesis in cell of the immune system

B) the movement of oxygen right into erythrocytes

C) generation the ATP in muscle cells D) the warehouse of to pee in the urinary bladder


55) The pedigree in the figure over shows the infection of a trait in a certain family. Based on this pattern of transmission, the properties is most most likely _____. A) mitochondrial B) sex-linked dominant

C) sex-linked recessive D) autosomal dominant


56) A specific kind that snail deserve to have a right-handed direction of covering coiling (DD or Dd) or left- handed coiling (dd). However, if direction that coiling is as result of a protein deposited by the mom in the egg cytoplasm, then a Dd egg-producing snail and a dd sperm-producing snail will have actually offspring of i m sorry genotype(s) and also phenotype(s)?

A) 1/2 Dd:1/2 dd; all right-coiling B) all Dd; all right-coiling C) 1/2 Dd:1/2 dd; half right-coiling and half left-coiling

D) all Dd; fifty percent right-coiling and half left-coiling


57) throughout meiosis, a defect wake up in a cell that outcomes in the failure of microtubules, spindle fibers, to tie at the kinetochores, a protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers connect during cell department to traction sister chromatids apart. Which of the complying with is the most likely result of such a defect?

A) brand-new microtubules with more effective binding capabilities come kinetochores will be synthesized to compensate because that the defect. B) extreme cell divisions will happen resulting in cancer tumors and an increase in the chromosome numbers recognized as polyploidy. C) The defect will certainly be bypassed in order to and also ensure normal chromosome circulation in the new cells. D) The resulting cells will not obtain the correct variety of chromosomes in the gametes, a problem known as aneuploidy.


58) Inheritance patterns cannot constantly be described by Mendel’s models of inheritance. If a pair of homologous chromosomes fails to separate during meiosis I, choose the choice that mirrors the chromosome variety of the 4 resulting gametes with respect to the common haploid number (n)?