Pressure gradient is the flow rate that a liquid v a pipe. This is straight proportional to the difference in between the pressure at the 2 ends that the pipe and inversely proportional to the pip’s resistance. The press gradient is straight dependent upon blood ship radius which basically controls blood flow. The bigger the blood vessel radius, the more blood flow or liquid flow. The smaller sized blood vessel radius, the class blood or liquid flow.

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2. Explain the impact that the circulation tube radius change had on circulation rate. How well go the results compare with your prediction?

Flow tube radius readjust has a direct effect on flow rate. As shown in this lab, when flow tube radius was increased, the circulation rate was additionally increased. They are straight proportional. As shown from the text, when flow tube radius increases in a blood vessel, the circulation rate is much more free flowing and also flows a lot quicker as the radius is increased.


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When beginning with 1.5mm that radius, the circulation was an extremely slow, however when increased to 2mm, 3mm, and eventually come 5mm, the circulation within the blood courage incrementally increased.

3. Describe the result that radius alters have on the laminar flow of a fluid.

Laminar flow is defined as the free-flowing blood in the middle of the vessel. Radius readjust is directly proportional ~ above laminar flow. In a constricted vessel, proportionately more blood is in contact with the vessel wall surface and there is less laminar flow, considerably diminishing the rate of blood circulation in the vessel, yet if the vessel is more dilated, or the radius is increased, an ext blood flow is may be to acquire in, therefore increasing the blood flow.


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The bigger the radius, the an ext laminar circulation of fluid.

4. Why execute you think the plot was no linear? (Hint: look at the connection of the variables in the equation). How well go the results compare v your prediction?

If the variables space radius on the X-axis and also flow rate on the Y-axis, the experiment dubbed for the experimenter come incrementally increase the radius and also plot the results. Together we know, radius is straight proportional to circulation rate in that together the radius increases so does the circulation rate, therefore, the plotted graph needs to be linear. If one increases, so does the other going in a straight line!

Activity 2 Questions:

1. Describe the components in the blood that affect viscosity?

The components in the blood that influence viscosity room the presences that plasma proteins and formed facets such together white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cell (erythrocytes), and also platelets. When these created elements and plasma proteins in the blood slide previous one another, over there is rise in the resistance to flow.

2. Explain the result that the viscosity adjust had on flow rate. Exactly how well walk the outcomes compare with your prediction?

Viscosity is defined as the thickness or stickiness of a fluid. In regards to flow rate, they space inversely comparable and thus together you boost viscosity or the “thickness” the the blood, the flow rate decreases. As watched in the graph, increasing the viscosity inversely decreases the flow rate each time you raised it through 1.

3. Describe the graph of flow versus viscosity.

As evidenced in the graph, the constants in this experiment to be radius, length, and also pressure. The variables were circulation rate and also viscosity. The y axis represented circulation rate and the x axis represented viscosity. As viscosity increased, the circulation rate lessened causing a linear or inverse curve connection going down.

4. Talk about the impact that polycythemia would have actually on viscosity and also on blood flow.

Polycythemia is a condition in i beg your pardon excess red blood cells are present. Us learned previously that rise in red blood cells outcomes in boost in blood viscosity. An increase in blood viscosity directly affects blood flow, in that blood circulation would decrease. Thus, the presence of polycythemia would certainly inversely affect blood flow rate by decreasing it.

Activity 3 Questions:

1. Which is much more likely come occur, a readjust in blood courage radius or a adjust in blood vessel length?

A adjust in blood ship radius is much more like to occur since blood vessel size only increases as we prosper into maturity and in adulthood blood vessel lengths remain constant. The just possibility of blood ship length changing is as soon as we get or shed weight. With the procedure of vasodilation, or the smoothing of the blood ship muscle, you can change the radius that the vessel an ext frequently.

2. Describe the effect that the change in blood courage length had actually on circulation rate. How well go the results compare with your prediction?

Blood vessel length, when boosted causes an ext friction or resistance for this reason making that more daunting for blood to circulation through the vessel. In summation, raising blood vessel size inversely results flow rate but decreasing flow rate. My prediction to be that rise in blood vessel length would inversely impact blood flow. As shown in this experiment, with the rise of the blood courage length, there to be a decrease in blood flow.

3. Define why girlfriend think blood ship radius deserve to have a larger result on the human body that transforms in blood ship length.

In the blood flow equation (as viewed to the right), blood flow is directly proportional to the 4th power of courage radius. Dramatic alters happen in regards to blood flow due to the fact that of little changes in blood ship radius. The smaller the blood courage radius, the greater the resistance. Blood ship radius is the solitary most necessary factor in identify blood flow resistance.

4. Define the result that weight problems would have actually on blood flow and also why.

As referenced indigenous this experiment, weight, either acquire or loss effects blood vessel length. A adjust in blood vessel length can only be transformed through the get or lose of weight. As shown in this experiment, when blood vessel length is enhanced as a result of weight gain, there is better resistance or friction in ~ the vessel do blood circulation through that vessel more difficult thus decreasing blood flow. Obesity different effect blood flow in that, over there are increased blood vessel lengths, causing higher friction or resistance in ~ the vessel and also a diminish in blood flow.

Activity 4 Questions:

1. Explain the effect that pressure changes had on flow rate. Exactly how well go the outcomes compare with your prediction.

Pressure transforms have a profound impact on circulation rate. As press increases, flow rate likewise increases. Castle are directly proportional. In regards to my prediction, i predicted that as pressure increased, therefore would flow rate.

2. Just how does the plot different from the plots for pipe radius, viscosity, and also tube length? how well did the results compare through your prediction.

The plot for pressure in straight in that, rise in pressure is directly proportional to flow rate. It was a perfectly directly line upwards as press increased. In regards come the plot for tube radius, it to be very comparable in that outcomes were an ext curve shaped yet went in the same directly upward. As vessel radius increased so did flow rate. In regards come viscosity, castle were drastically different, together viscosity increased, the rate of flow decreased because there was more resistance. In regards to pipe length, this is drastically different than pressure due to the fact that with an increase in pipe length, over there is a diminish in price of flow due to the fact that there is an ext resistance within the vessel itself. After finding out that vessel radius is the greatest factor in regards to circulation rate, ns predicted that with rise in press there would also be rise in circulation rate.

3. Define why pressure transforms are not the best method to control blood flow.

Pressure transforms are no the best means to regulate blood flow due to the fact that it can place more stress top top the heart (which causes the initial pressure) and also requires the heart to adjust its pressure of contraction. The blood vessels need time to respond to that adjust in force as well as the huge arteries roughly the heart. It required for them to have an ext tissue in their tunics come accommodate the heart and it’s increase of force. Plus, the best means to regulate blood flow, as checked out from these experiments is through enhancing vessel radius.

4. Use you data to calculate the increase in circulation rate in ml/min/mm Hg.

In this experiment, radius, viscosity, and length remained constant, and also pressure and also flow price were the variables. I began off v a push of 25 mm Hg and also the circulation rate was 35mm/min. Together I boost the pressure by 25 mm Hg each time, the flow rate raised by about 35 mm/min each time.

Activity 5 Questions:

1. Define the result of boosting the right circulation tube radius ~ above the flow rate, resistance, and also pump rate.

Increasing the right flow tube radius is straight proportional come increasing flow rate. As confirmed in other experiments, raising tube radius reduce resistance therefore increasing flow rate. In addition, together the right circulation tube radius increased, for this reason did the pump rate. Each time that I raised the right flow tube radius by .5mm, the pump rate raised as did the flow rate due to the fact that of the diminish in resistance.

2. Define what the left and right beakers in the experiment correspond to in the human being heart.

The left beaker represents the side of the heart wherein blood is pumped through the lungs to the opposite side of the heart. The appropriate beaker represents the next of the heart that delivers blood to the device of the body.

3. Briefly describe how the human heart might compensate for circulation rate changes to keep blood pressure. The human being heart compensates for circulation rate changes by transforming heart rate, hit volume or resistance. If resistance decreases, love rate have the right to increase to preserve the pressure difference. If resistance is decreasing, there is rise in circulation rate.

Activity 6 Questions:

1. Describe the Frank-Starling legislation in the heart.

The Frank-Starling regulation in the heart describes when much more than the normal volume of blood is returned to the love by the venous system. In this process, the heart is extended which outcomes in a much more forceful contraction of the ventricles. This causes an ext than normal quantities of blood to be ejected through the heart which raises hit volume.

2. Define what taken place to the pump rate as soon as you increased the stroke volume. Why carry out you think this occurred? just how well did the outcomes compare through your prediction?

When you increase the hit volume, there is an inverse decrease in pump rate, also though there is a constant amount of flow that results. This is directly the opposite of my predictions, yet ns learned that the reason why pump rate decreases when stroke volume boosts is due to the fact that the heart intrinsically changes stroke volume come accommodate alters in preload or during the duration where the ventricles are stretched by the end diastolic volume. Stroke volume is likewise controlled by the strength and also force of contractility of the heart.

3. Define how the heart changes stroke volume?

The heart alters stroke volume by altering the pump volume or the contractility. By transforming the contractility, friend are changing the toughness of the cardiac muscle contraction and its capability to create force.

4. Explain the intrinsic components that regulate stroke volume.

The intrinsic determinants that regulate stroke volume are heart rate and cardiac output. Complete blood circulation is proportional come cardiac output. Thus, as soon as the stroke volume decreases, the heart price music boost to maintain cardiac output. Yet, once stroke volume increases, the heart rate need to decrease to keep cardiac output.

Activity 7 Questions:

1. Explain how the heart might compensate for changes in peripheral resistance.

The heart deserve to compensate for alters in peripheral resistance by diminish blood viscosity and also through adjusting the force of convulsion of the heart. Boosting contractility or forcing contraction of the love combats afterload and blood flow resistance. Boosting contractility will boost cardiac output by enhancing stroke volume.

2. I beg your pardon mechanism had the greatest compensatory effect? how well go the results compare with your prediction?

My prediction to be that enhancing the left circulation tube radius would have actually the greatest influence in regards to blood circulation into the right tube, however adjusting the force of convulsion of the heart had the best compensatory effect on the flow of blood right into the ideal beaker.

3. Explain what taken place when the pump pressure and the beaker push were the same. Exactly how well walk the outcomes compare through your prediction?

When the pump pressure and the beaker pressure were the same, the valve would certainly not open since there was poor driving pressure to force fluid out of the pump. This to be adverse to mine prediction, whereby I predicted that there would be boost of flow, but I was incorrect, in the nothing happened and also there was no flow.

4. Explain whether it would certainly be far better to adjust heart price or blood courage diameter to achieve blood flow transforms at a neighborhood level.

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I think that it would be better to adjust heart price in order to attain blood flow changes at a local level. Return the text and also experiments have demonstrated that it is more effective to rise blood vessel diameter in stimulate to boost the price of circulation within blood vessels, i think the exercise rises your heart price which is directly linked to rise in blood flow.