The Constitution and also theInauguration of the President
The inaugeration ofPresident Herbert Hoover in 1929

In order come ensure a smooth shift of power, over there is a require for aperiod of time in between the election and also and the swearing in that the newperiod. New presidents have actually to choose cabinet members and otherkey management members, as well as get increase to rate on securityissues and simply started the job of physically relocating a new team toWashington. For the old president, this time in office isreferred to together "the lame duck" period, a hatchet taken from wall Streetthat used to express to people who can not pay turn off theirloans--persons, prefer the lame duck president, without lot capital. Prior to the enactement of the 20th modification in 1933, the new presidentwas no sworn till the March complying with the election. This longdelay caused problems. In the "secession winter" ~ theelection the Abraham Lincoln, chairman James Buchanan watched assecessionists seized federal forts and arsenals. By march 1861,when Lincoln ultimately took office, the Civil battle was almost lost beforeit even began. Seven years later, in themiddle the the good Depression, the lame duck period of presidentHerbert Hoover seemed far too long. Hoover and also Franklin Rooseveltbarely communicated and the nation waited because that decisive activity from itsnewly chosen leader. In response, the 20th Amendment was proposedand adopted. The 20th Amendment moves the day of inauguration from March come "noonon the 20th job of January." Under the Constitution, the oldpresident continues to hold full power v 11:59:59, and also then powershifts at noon. Post II, section 1 needs that the newpresident, prior to executing any type of duties, take a prescribed oath oraffirmation. To prevent a constitutional power vacuum, theInauguration Day regime is details to schedule the swearing in because that asclose as possible to noon. The chef Justice of the unified Statestypically administers the oath, return the structure does notrequire the the oath be performed through the cook Justice. The oath mentioned in post II walk not incorporate four indigenous recited inall recent inaugurations: "So help me God." The very first known useof the phrase "So assist me God" in a presidential inauguration was byChester Arthur, ~ above September 22, 1881, following the fatality in office ofPresident James Garfield. In 2008, atheist activist MichaelNewdow unsuccessfully sued in commonwealth court to block the use of thephrase "Sohelp me God" in Barack Obama"s inauguration. On 3 occasions, presidents (Arthur, Coolidge, and also Obama) havere-taken oaths after questions were raised around firstattempts. The most recent do-over arisen in 2009 after ChiefJustice Roberts got the oath"s words out of bespeak in the publicinaugurationceremony.


passed by conference March 2, 1932. Validated January 23, 1933.

Note: short article I, section 4, of theConstitution wasmodifiedby section 2 the this amendment. In addition, a part of the 12thamendmentwas superseded by section 3.

Section 1.

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The terms of the President and also the Vice chairman shall end at noonon the 20th job of January, and the regards to Senators andRepresentativesat noon on the 3d work of January, that the year in which together termswouldhave ended if this short article had not been ratified; and also the state oftheirsuccessors shall then begin.

Section 2. The conference shall assemble at least once in every year, and also suchmeetingshall begin at noon on the 3d job of January, unless they shall by lawappoint a various day....

George Washington acquisition theoath that office top top April 30, 1789

Article. II.

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Section. 1.

Before he go into on the Execution the his Office, the shalltakethe adhering to Oath or Affirmation:--"I execute solemnly oath (or affirm)thatI will faithfully execute the Office of chairman of the joined States,and will certainly to the best of mine Ability, preserve, protect and defend theConstitutionof the unified States."