Definition

Facial trauma is one injury the the face. It may encompass the face bones such together the upper jaw bone (maxilla).

You are watching: The most significant complication associated with facial injuries is

Alternative Names

Maxillofacial injury; Midface trauma; face injury; LeFort injuries

Causes

Facial injuries can influence the top jaw, lower jaw, cheek, nose, eye socket, or forehead. They might be resulted in by blunt pressure or be the result of a wound.

Common reasons of injury come the challenge include:

Car and motorcycle crashesWounds sporting activities injuriesViolence

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

Changes in feeling over the faceDeformed or uneven challenge or facial bonesDifficulty breathing through the nose because of swelling and also bleedingDouble visionMissing teethSwelling or bruising approximately the eyes that may cause vision problems

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will carry out a physical exam, which may show:

Bleeding indigenous the nose, eyes, or mouthNasal blockageBreaks in the skin (lacerations)Bruising roughly the eye or widening of the distance in between the eyes, which may mean injury come the bones between the eye socketsChanges in vision or the activity of the eyesImproperly to adjust upper and lower teeth

The adhering to may imply bone fractures:

Abnormal feel on the cheekIrregularities of the challenge that have the right to be feeling by touchingMovement the the upper jaw when the head is still

A CT scan of the head and also bones of the face may be done.

Treatment

Surgery is done if the injury prevents normal to work or reasons a significant deformity.

The goal of treatment is to:

Control bleedingCreate a clear airwayTreat the fracture and fix broken bone segments protect against scars, if possiblePrevent long-term twin vision or sunken eyes or cheek bonesRule out other injuries

Treatment should be excellent as quickly as possible if the human is stable and also does not have a neck fracture.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Most world do really well with suitable treatment. Much more surgery may be needed in 6 come 12 months to correct alters in appearance.

Possible Complications

Complications may include:

BleedingUneven faceInfectionBrain and also nervous system problemsNumbness or weaknessLoss the vision or double vision

When to call a medical Professional

Go to the emergency room or speak to the neighborhood emergency number (such together 911) if you have a severe injury to your face.

Prevention

Wear seat belts while driving.

Use safety head gear when doing work or activities that can injure the face.


References

Kellman RM. Maxillofacial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. Sixth ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 23.

Mayersak RJ. Face trauma. In: walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen"s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. Ninth ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 35.

Neligan PC, Buck DW, facial injuries. In: Neligan PC, Buck DW, eds. Core steps in Plastic Surgery. Second ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 9.

See more: What Is 18 Times 4 Using Long Division, What Is 18 Times 4

Version Info

*
A.D.A.M., Inc. Is accredited through URAC, likewise known together the American Accreditation medical care Commission (www.urac.org). URAC"s accreditation regimen is the first of the kind, requiring compliance with 53 standards of quality and accountability, confirmed by elevation audit. A.D.A.M. Is amongst the an initial to achieve this important distinction for online health and wellness information and also services. Learn much more about A.D.A.M."s editorial process. A.D.A.M. Is likewise a founding member that Hi-Ethics (www.hiethics.com) and also subscribes to the ethics of the health and wellness on the Net structure (www.hon.ch).