teacher Amédée Forestier, The Signing of the treaty of Ghent, Christmas Eve, 1814, 1914, oil top top canvas, Smithsonian American art Museum, Gift the the Sulgrave college of the U.S. And good Britain. Signing of contract of Ghent
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The war of 1812 is just one of the the very least studied wars in American history. Sometimes referred to as the “Second war of Independence,” the battle of 1812 to be the an initial large scale test that the American republic ~ above the world stage. With the British navy impressing American sailors, and the British federal government aiding native American tribes in their attacks on American citizen on the frontier, Congress, for the very first time in our nation’s history, asserted war on a international nation: Great Britain. The battle of 1812 carried the United says onto the world"s stage and was complied with by a half-decade now called the "Era of good Feelings." 

This page provides answers to typically asked questions about this formative and dramatic conflict.

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When walk the war of 1812 begin?

The battle of 1812 began on June 18th, 1812 with the Unites says formally proclaiming war on the unified Kingdom. The battle lasted from June 1812-February 1815, a expectations of 2 years and also eight months.

When did the war of 1812 end?

Peace negotiations began in so late 1814, but slow communication throughout the Atlantic (and indeed across the unified States) an extensive the war and likewise led to many tactical errors because that both sides. The treaty of Ghent to be signed by British and also United claims delegates ~ above December 24th, 1814, to it is in enacted as soon as each next formally validated the treaty. The British were able come ratify the treaty on December 27th, however it took several weeks for the treaty to with the joined States. The was validated by the united state Senate top top February 17th, 1815. The battle lasted a total of 2 years and eight months.

What were the reasons of the war of 1812?

The battle of 1812 was component of a larger, worldwide conflict. The empires of England and France spent 1789-1815 locked in an almost constant war for worldwide superiority. That war stretched from Europe to phibìc Africa and also to Asia and, once the Americans asserted war ~ above England, the war engulfed phibìc America as well. 

The joined States had actually a range of grievances versus Britain. Plenty of felt the the British had not yet involved respect the United claims as a legitimate country. The British were impressing, or American seafarers at sea and also blocking American trade through France—both of these were additionally spillover policies from the british prosecution that the war v France. The brothers were additionally unsubtly supporting aboriginal American teams who were in dispute with American settlers along the frontier.

What is impressment?

Impressment to be a practice wherein a nation would take men into military or naval pressures by compulsion, without offering notice. Regularly referred to as the "press gang", impressment was supplied by several countries in the 19th century. The term is many commonly associated with the united kingdom as it was a common practice for the imperial Navy to usage impressment during wartime. Impressment was a grievance cited together a cause of the American change but is most commonly linked with the battle of 1812. The exercise ceased in the royal Navy ~ 1814.


Where was the battle of 1812 fought?

The war of 1812 was fought in the joined States, Canada, and on the high seas. Engagements were dealt with in the Old Southwest (Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, and Mississippi), the Old Northwest (embracing Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin) Canada, Coastal Maine and the Chesapeake.

Many battles were engaged in rivers, lakes, and the oceans. The British applied a blockade the American ports, an especially in the South, along the Atlantic seaboard. Marine engagements flared, especially roughly the Chesapeake Bay, together this blockade to be challenged. Additionally, because the war had actually a distinct commercial character, pirate-style raids were carried out versus trade ships transparent the Atlantic. Lake Erie and also Lake Ontario played major duties in the war of 1812. Sit amidst the key theater of operations in the North, they shaped the movements of the competing armies. Huge ships to be built and also put on the Lakes, wherein they engaged in full-scale war for supremacy in order to move troops and also bombard competitor towns.

Who was the American President throughout the battle of 1812?


James Madison, “the father of the Constitution,” was the chairman throughout the war. As soon as the country was very first founded, Madison was carefully allied with Thomas Jefferson in seeking a decentralized agrarian democracy. As time wore on, however, the male changed. Transparent the war of 1812, he struggled come motivate northeastern says to add men and also money come the battle effort. By the time the battle was over, Madison was a proponent of central power and also a solid manufacturing economy.

Who were several of the vital military numbers of the war of 1812?

Many that the necessary military numbers of the battle of 1812 had actually started their careers either throughout the Revolutionary War or during the ongoing wars between Britain and France, particularly the Napoleonic wars (1803-1815).

Important American numbers included Oliver danger Perry, the "Hero of Lake Erie", Jacob Brown who successfully defended Fort Erie in spite of a seven-week siege, and was later advocated to Commander general of the U.S. Army, and Winfield Scott was a brave fighter who also implemented a training system that greatly improved the battlefield performance of the American army. He would later conceive of the “Anaconda Plan” the shaped northern strategy in the civil War. In addition, two well known future Presidents made their mark throughout the war; William Henry Harrison who responsible for the military devastation of Tecumseh’s Confederacy of indigenous American tribes, and Andrew Jackson, who defeated the Creek ind in Alabama and won a dramatic victory against the British at New Orleans. 


Important British numbers included Isaac Brock, a famous imperial administrator in Canada who ended up being a hero posthumously because that his heroic but fatal defense that Queenston Heights, Robert Ross who led the veteran expeditionary pressure that burned Washington, D.C. And also was killed outside of Baltimore in ~ the fight of phibìc Point, and Edward Pakenham, a respect Napoleonic war veteran who led the British pillar that attacked the Gulf Coast, killed at the battle of new Orleans.

Important Canadian figures included Gordon Drummond, a Canadian-born officer in the British army who important role in the battle of Lundy’s Lane and the succeeding siege of ft Erie, Robert Livingston a army courier who had helped elevator the siege of fort Mackinac by smuggling in fresh gives using camouflaged boats, and Richard Pierpont, a former slave who won flexibility by fighting for the brother in the Revolutionary war who arranged “The Coloured Corps,” comprised primarily of servants who had actually escaped come Canada, which battled at the battles of Queenston Heights and also Fort George.

What role did indigenous Americans play in the battle of 1812?

Shawnee war Chief Tecumseh

Native Americans play a major role in the war of 1812. Tribes were aligned v both sides of the conflict, although predominately people allied themselves with the British versus the joined States. The tribes battled along the frontier and also along the Gulf Coast; tribal wars emerged alongside war of the war of 1812. Famous Native americans included Tecumseh, a Shawnee leader who organized a confederation of native American tribes, well-known as Tecumseh’s Confederacy, come resist recurring encroachment on your lands by europe settlers. Tecumseh was killed at the battle of the Thames and also his Confederacy dropped apart. Black Hawk to be a Sauk chief who fought versus American frontiersmen. After the war of 1812, black Hawk organized a new confederacy, leading to the black color Hawk war of 1832.

What functions did African-Americans pat in the battle of 1812?

African american were no officially allowed to sign up with the U.S. Military during the battle of 1812, although castle served broadly in the U.S. Navy. Approximately one-quarter of the U.S. Sailors at the fight of Lake Erie to be African American. Roughly 350 males of the “Battalion of complimentary Men the Color” fought at the fight of brand-new Orleans.

A company of largely escaped slaves served with the british in Canada, participating in the fight of Queenston Heights and also the Siege of ft Erie. 

During the royal Navy’s blockade that the Atlantic seaboard, around 4,000 slaves escaped onto British ships, where they to be welcomed and freed. Many of them join the british military, participating in the battle of Bladensburg and also the burn of Washington, D.C.

How many people fought in the battle of 1812?

Only 7,000 guys served in the joined States army when the war damaged out. By the end of the war, more than 35,000 American regulars and 458,000 militia—though numerous of this were just mustered in for neighborhood defense—were offer on land and also sea. 

The an international British regular military was consisted of of 243,885 soldiers in 1812. Through war’s end, much more than 58,000 regulars, 4,000 militia, and 10,000 aboriginal Americans would join the fight for phibìc America. 

How many people died in the battle of 1812?

Roughly 15,000 Americans passed away as a an outcome of the battle of 1812. Around 8,600 British and also Canadian soldiers passed away from fight or disease. The losses among Native American tribes room not known.

What to be the significant battles that the battle of 1812?

The war of 1812 to be shaped by battles on land and also sea.


The capture of Detroit (August 16, 1812) – just weeks after the war began, American basic William Hull surrendered Detroit, in addition to a sizable army, there is no resistance to a smaller sized British force.

The catch of the HMS Java, HMS Guerriere, and HMS Macedonian (August-December 1812) – The new US frigates Constitution and United States started the war v a bang, performing fine in a collection of Atlantic engagements that increased American morale after a disappointing beginning on land.

The battle of Queenston Heights (October 13, 1812) – In a dramatic battle, British and Canadian troops turned ago an American incursion into Canada. British basic Isaac Brock to be killed.

The battle of York (April 27, 1813) – American forces shed York, the funding of top Canada, ~ winning a hard-fought floor battle. 

The battle of Lake Erie (September 10, 1813) – Oliver danger Perry winner fame for his heroic deeds in this victory, i beg your pardon secured Lake Erie because that the rest of the war and also paved the method for the liberation that Detroit.

The fight of the Thames, Ontario (October 5, 1813) – wilhelm Henry Harrison crushed a merged force the British and Native americans in this battle, killing the Shawnee leader Tecumseh and also thus removed the most dangerous threat to American inhabitants in the northwest.

The battle of Horseshoe bending (March 27, 1814) – Andrew Jackson beat the Red pole Creeks and then compelled the tribe to cede their case to 23 million acre of what is now Alabama and also Georgia.

The battle of Bladensburg (August 24, 1814) – brother regulars routed Maryland militia in this battle, opened the road to Washington, D.C., which lock burned. 

The fight of Plattsburgh (September 11, 1814) – The British released a poorly coordinated joint operation versus the shipyard in ~ Plattsburgh, however were decisively repulsed in among the war’s largest naval engagements.

"The battle of new Orleans" by E. Percy Moran shows Andrew Jackson stand in former of American flag with sword raised. Library of congress

The fight of North allude and the Defense of fort McHenry (September 12-13, 1814) – After burning Washington, D.C., brother forces advanced on Baltimore. Stubborn resistance in ~ North suggest and ft McHenry saved the city, compelled the British to suspend their campaign, and also inspired the American nationwide anthem.

The war of Stoney Creek and also Beaver Dams (June 6-24, 1813) – another invasion of Canada to be repulsed in this battles. 

The fight of Lundy’s roadway (July 25, 1814) – In among the bloodiest war of the war, one marked by substantial hand-to-hand fighting, the american were forced out the Canada for good.

The battle of brand-new Orleans (January 8, 1815) – Andrew Jackson inflicted over 2,000 casualties on attacking British troops while enduring 333 in the entire campaign. The fight became a touchstone of American pride, despite it arising after the war had technically ended.

What type of weapons were supplied in the war of 1812?

The many widely offered weapon in the war of 1812 to be the smoothbore musket, i m sorry was lugged by many of the infantrymen in the field. These had an reliable battlefield selection of 50-100 yards, necessitating near assaults and bayonet methods be employed. Over there were additionally some devices equipped v rifles, which were used mostly as irradiate or dedicated infantry.

Cannons were smoothbore together well, though they can shoot roughly 400 yards accurately. Lock were offered with deadly, decisive impact on the battlefield.

Cavalrymen generally brought pistols and also sabers and were supplied to outmaneuver or charge adversary formations. 

How progressed was medicine during the battle of 1812?

Disease was the primary cause of death during the battle of 1812, not battlefield wounds. When men were wounded, they had little to look forward to in the hospital. Although sanitation was well-known as being medically important, advancements such together anesthesia and ambulatory care were still decades away. A British surgeon (who, together with one assistant, would normally be responsible for 1,000 men) mental this:

“There is fixed on the confront of the earth a much less enviable situation than the of an army Surgeon ~ a battle-worn out and fatigued in body and mind, surrounded by suffering, pain, and also misery, much of which he to know it is not in his power to heal…. I never underwent such tiredness as i did the first week at Butler"s Barracks. The weather was intensely hot, the paris in myriads, and lighting on the wounds, deposited their eggs, so the maggots to be bred in a couple of hours.” – Tiger Dunlop, 89th Regiment of Foot

The average British and American soldier throughout the battle of 1812.

Were there any far-reaching technological advancements during the war of 1812?

The battle of 1812 was dealt with in the midst of the industrial Revolution, in which a range of technological advancements came together to forever change the means humans lived and worked. 

Steamships and steam-powered rail engines came into financially rewarding use because that the very first time throughout the war years. While they had tiny effect on the north American conflict, these heavy steam machines would end up being the technological standard in the decades to come.

Machines made through interchangeable components became an ext common during the war of 1812, although the practice was not yet applied to army manufacturing. Because that the common soldier, the most significant advancement may well have been improved food storage through airtight packaging.

What were the political impacts of the war of 1812?

Internationally, the war assisted codify a fair standing in between the unified States, Britain, and also Canada. This led to an era the mutually advantageous trade and diplomatic partnership. 

Domestically, the battle exacerbated tensions in between northern industrialists and also southern planters. Industrialists to be reluctant to walk to war through Britain, which was then the an international model that the industrial Revolution. Southerners, ~ above the other hand, were fast to mental the French aid that had actually helped victory the southern campaigns of the American transformation as well together the ideology system similarities between the two revolutionary nations. The American public generally viewed the result of the war favorably, causing the anti-war Federalist Party to fade from national prominence.

What were the financial effects that the battle of 1812?

In the at an early stage years the the 19th century, the United claims was a rapidly expanding commercial power. Numerous historians mention this development as a vital factor in Britain’s desire come contain American expansion. The war helped to certain America’s unfettered accessibility to the sea, which played a big role in a post-war economic boom.

The beginning of the war price the unified States federal government 105 million dollars, which translates to around 1.5 billion dollars in 2014. The stress, overload of raising this money drive legislators to charter the second National Bank, taking an additional step in the direction of centralization. 

Who winner the battle of 1812?

The tranquility terms that finished the battle were those that status quo ante bellum, “the state of points as lock were prior to the war.” So, if the war of 1812 to be legally a tie—a wash—in regards to territorial acquisitions, chroniclers now look in ~ its lengthy term effects to judge that won.

The Americans claimed war (for the an initial time in your nation’s history) to protect against British impressment, reopen the profession lanes through France, eliminate British assistance from aboriginal American tribes, and also to secure their territorial honor and also integrity in the face of your old rulers. All four of these objectives were achieved by the moment peace broke out, although part British measures were scheduled to be repealed before the war had also begun. By developing a respected footing v Britain and also Canada, the united States also experienced a commercial boom in the years after the war. The overall an outcome of the war was more than likely positive because that the country as a whole.

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The brother gained little to nothing indigenous the war, conserve for one honorable friendship v the unified States. An important resources were diverted from the sirhenryjones-museums.org the Europe for the battle of 1812, which brought no floor or treasure to the crown. The British additionally lost their indigenous American lodgment against United states expansion, more unleashing the growth of a major worldwide trade competitor. However, the british did at some point defeat France in their lengthy war while avoiding a fiasco in north America, which is a significant victory in the paper definition of the an international conflict castle waged. 

Many native American people fought versus the United claims in the Northwest, unified as a Confederacy led by a Shawnee male named Tecumseh. Plenty of of this tribes had actually allied through the British throughout the Revolutionary battle as well. The Creek people in the Southwest fought settlers and also soldiers throughout the battle of 1812, ultimately allying with a column of brother regulars. In reaching peace through condition quo antebellum, however, the native Americans all shed their key request of a recognized nation in phibìc America. Brother support likewise evaporated in the year after the war, additional quickening the loss of native lands.

painting of the signing the the treaty of Ghent, 1814. Teacher Amédée Forestier, The Signing the the treaty of Ghent, Christmas Eve, 1814, 1914, oil ~ above canvas,

What are several of the ideal sources of info on the battle of 1812?

The Smithsonian nationwide Museum of American history is a endowment trove of information and also artifacts, consisting of the initial Star-Spangled Banner.There are many book sources for info on the battle of 1812 including:

The war of 1812: A Forgotten problem by Donald R. Hickey

1812: The battle That Forged A Nation by Walter Borneman

The battle of 1812, Conflict and also Deception: The British effort to Seize brand-new Orleans and also Nullify the Louisiana Purchase by Ronald J. Drez

The Dawn’s beforehand Light by Walter Lord

The fight of new Orleans: Andrew Jackson and also America’s an initial Military Victory by Robert Remini

Are any War that 1812 sirhenryjones-museums.org preserved?

Many sirhenryjones-museums.org indigenous the war of 1812 are preserved in part or in full, however many are not. The United states federal government compiled a study in 2007 that identified breakthrough threats to countless sirhenryjones-museums.org and also described an ext than fifty percent as currently being "destroyed or fragmented."