A bacter inhabits the human nasal cavity wherein it obtains nutrients from secretions. That neither harms nor services the host. The connection is thus a(n) _____ one.

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A. Parasitic

B. Neutral

C. Commensal

D. Mutualisitic

E. Antagonistic

A protozoan and its residents bacteria attack the body of a worm. The bacteria release toxins and exoenzymes the immobilize and digest the worm, and the protozoan and also bacteria absorb the nutrients produced. The relationship between the protozoan and also the bacteria would ideal be defined as

A. Parasitism

B. Commensalism

C. Both commensalism and also parasitism

D. Mutualism

E. A nonsymbiotic relationship

Symptoms are

A. Subjective features of a an illness that just the patient have the right to feel.

B. Target manifestations the a condition that have the right to be it was observed by others

C. Activities tests offered to diagnose a disease.

D. Attributes of a disease, such together sweating.

E. Target manifestations the a disease that have the right to be measured

Chaga"s condition is transmitted by a bug with mouthparts that pass through blood vessels. Which kind of exposure does this represent?

A. Parenteral route

B. Mucous membrane portal

C. Fomite

D. Skin portal

E. Contact

A human being licks a needle before injecting a drug into a vein. The human being later develops a bacterial epidemic of the blood. This is an example of

A. Microbial synergism

B. Microbial antagonism

C. A disruption the the common microbial populace of the blood

D. A member of the microbiota gaining accessibility to an unusual ar in the body.

E. Immune suppression bring about disease

Which the the following instances is no a method in which a infant acquires common microbiota?

A. Microorganisms flourish in the respiratory tract tract after the baby"s first breath.

B. Microbes overcome the placenta throughout pregnancy.

C. The baby acquires the residential microbiota in the colon after ~ the very first meal.

D. Microbes get in the nose and also mouth once the infant is in the bear canal.

E. Staphylococcus epidermidis is transferred from the hospital employee to the child after delivery.

Which that the following statements regarding the show of the etiology of disease is FALSE?

A. The suspect agent must reason the an illness under investigation when introduced into a susceptible hold organism.

B. The suspect agent need to be the just potential microorganism present in disease cases.

C. The doubt agent should be present in all situations of disease.

Among the virulence factors created by Staphylococcus aureus are hemolysin, coagulase, hyaluronidase, and enterotoxin. I m sorry of these factors contribute(s) come the capacity of S. Aureus to invade the body?

A. Hemolysin

B. Hyaluronidase

C. Coagulase

D. Enterotoxin

E. Coagulase and also hemolysin

Diseases that room induced by contemporary medical procedures are described as ____ infections.

A. Opportunistic

B. Endogenous

C. Iatrogenic

D. Subacute

E. Exogenous

The incidence of tuberculosis in the year 2000 in the United claims was 12.43/100,000 cases. This means

A. 12.43 that every 100,000 human being died the tuberculosis in the united state in the year 2000.

B. 12.43 in every 100,000 world in the US had actually tuberculosis in the year 2000.

C. 12.43 of every 100,000 situations of tuberculosis to be treated in the us in the year 2000.

D. There to be 12.43 new cases that tuberculosis for every 100,000 people in the us in the year 2000.

E. There were 12.43 tubercule bacilli every 100,000 microbes in the us in the year 2000.



A strain of Neisseria gonorrhea has a mutation which has actually caused it to shed the ability to develop fimbriae and become much less virulent together a consequence. What duty has this pathogen lost?

A. The ability to stop phagocytes death it

B. The capacity to establish a implicit infection

C. The capability to create an endotoxin

D. The ability to relocate from one ar in the body to another

E. The capacity to adhere to cell of the body



Ten months after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, there was a sharp increase in the variety of cases the cholera. What to be the many likely resource of disease?

A. Foodborne

B. Waterborne

C. Indirect contact with contaminated equipment

D. Airborne

E. Direct call with infected individuals



Which that the complying with pairings the microbe and disease was disproven utilizing Koch"s posutlates?

A. Varicella-zoster virus and chickenpox

B. Haemophilus influenza and the flu

C. Hepatitis B and also D and also liver cancer

D. HIV and also AIDS

E. Mycobacetrium leprae and leprosy



(Graph showing increasing percentage from March to September, climate decreasing again v November.)

The sample of brand-new cases report in phibìc America represented in this graph is consistent with _____ transmission.

A. Housefly

B. Airborne

C. Fecal-oral

D. Straight contact

E. Mosquito vector



A new influenza strain appears and is spreading rapidly. What measures might be take away by public health agencies to stop the spread?

A. Education members the the public about ways to protect themselves.

B. Education the public, promote vaccination, and treat those who space infected.

C. Shut down public transportation.

D. Identify and treat civilization who are infected.

E. Facilitate accessibility to vaccines.



(Map of phibìc & south America)

The dots on the map stand for reported situations of a disease. This circulation is a(n) ______ pattern

A. Pandemic

B. Epidemic

C. Endemic

D. Emerging

E. Sporadic



Phagocytic cell in the epidermis recognized as _______ contribute to its capability to stop microbial invasion.

A. Natural killer lymphocytes

B. Hike macrophages

C. Microglia

D. Dendritic cells

E. Neutrophils



Response to certain pathogens that deserve to improve with subsequent exposure is

A. The an initial line the defense.

B. The second line that defense

C. The third line the defense.

D. Microbial antagonism

E. Natural immunity



What execute the nasal cavity, mouth, and urinary system have in common?

A. They are lined v mucous membranes.

B. They are lined v tightly pack dead cells.

C. The outer layers remain intact for numerous days.

D. They have roles in excretion of rubbish products.

E. They room poorly vascularized.



Which the the complying with contributes to protecting the eye from microbial invasion?

A. Tears mechanically do the washing up particles native the eyes.

B. Tears and mucus combine to trap microbes and remove them.

C. A mucus layer traps and also removes microbes.

D. Tears save on computer lysozyme and also salt and also mechanically flush particles from the eyes.

E. Tears contain lysozyme and salt.



What is the duty of NK cells?

A. They relax toxins to damage helminth parasites.

B. They relax defensins to damages bacteria.

C. They release interferons in solution to detecting virus particles.

D. They phagocytose virus particles.

E. Castle identify and also poison virus-infected cells.



Which the the following statements concerning the alternative complement solution is TRUE?

A. That is an ext efficient 보다 the timeless pathway.

B. It is not advantageous in the beforehand stages of fungal infection.

C. The works ideal on Gram-positive bacteria.

D. That activation is independent of antibodies

E. It plays a very far-ranging role in removed of helminth helminthes.



The materials of the 2nd line the defense against microbes might be defined as

A. Detecting the distinctive features of certain pathogens.

B. Responders come invasion.

C. Passive barriers.

D. Instrument to combine the an initial line of defense.

E. Both passive barriers and detecting specific microorganism features.



(pic the a cell through C5a & C3a it is registered & other "particles" leaving)

the procedure shown in the number will command to

A. Development of NETS

B. Development of MAes

C. Chmeotaxis and opsonization

D. Capillary constriction

E. Vasodilation



Which of the following statements is TRUE of eosinophils?

A. They create the coating that a microorganism by complement.

B. They secrete toxin onto the surface ar of helminth parasites.

C. They space in undamaged skin, sebum, tears, etc.

D. They decline during allergy reaction.

E. They relax prostaglandins and also leukotrienes in an answer to microbes.



One that the benefits of adaptive immunity over innate immunity is

A. A huge selection of cell are produced in response to one infection.

B. The solution targets classes of pathogens rather of details pathogens.

C. The capability to recognized antigens common to numerous microbes.

D. The response is much faster.

E. The solution is targeted against a single pathogen.



Adaptive immunity is sometimes likewise called gained immunity. I beg your pardon of the adhering to statements offers a basis for the alternative name?

A. Caused lymphocytes produce daughter cells the are identical in specificity and also function.

B. Triggered lymphocytes might persist because that years in the body.

C. To end up being activated, lymphocytes require exposure come the antigenic determinant because that which they space specific.

D. Lymphocytes the the adaptive immune system are highly details for a solitary antigenic determinant.

E. Lymphocytes reactive to typical body materials are removed.



Which that the adhering to is one exogenous antigen?

A. The malaria parasite inside a red blood cell

B. A noninfected human being cell

C. A bacterium outside a cell

D. A bacterium within a cell

E. A virus within a cell



In what way is the lymphatic system comparable to the circulatory system?

A. The lymphatic system is additionally a circulatory system.

B. The same types of cells circulation through both systems.

C. The composition of lymphatic liquid is comparable of the of blood plasma.

D. The lymph nodes can contract come push fluid through the system.

E. Liquid flows from larger vessels to capillaries.



The white blood cells mainly responsible because that adaptive immunity are

A. B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes

B. Macrophages and neutrophils.

C. Macrophages and eosinophils.

D. Neutrophils and also dendritic cells.

E. NK lymphocytes and also neutrophils.



(illustration the looks like a snowflake)

The kind of immunoglobulin illustrated here is

A. IgE

B. IgA

C. IgG

D. IgD

E. IgM



The Fc section of an antibody is formed by

A. The irradiate chains only.

B. Portions of both the heavy chains only.

C. The variable areas of the heavy chains.

D. The variable regions of the light chains.

E. One hefty chain.



Which that the adhering to statements about antibody role is FALSE?

A. They deserve to penetrate organize cells to bind intracellular antigens.

B. They can facilitate phagocyte attack on bacteria through a capsule (glycocalyx).

C. They deserve to facilitate cytotoxic assault by natural killer lymphocytes.

D. They can bind much more than one microorganism at a time, developing complexes.

E. They can prevent virus attachments to organize cells.



Which of the adhering to statements worrying B cabinet receptors (BCRs) is FALSE?

A. They room bound to the surface of B lymphocytes and have 2 antigen-binding sites.

B. Castle are created in solution to one encounter through an antigen.

C. Scientists estimate the each person develops at least 1011 different varieties of B lymphocytes with distinctive BCRs.

D. They space complementary in shape to a particular antigenic determinant that they might or may not encounter.

E. Each B lymphocyte is randomly produced with antibody variable areas that recognize its BCR.



Which of the following pairs the lymohoctye and glycoprotein is MISMATCHED?

A. TR: CD25

B. Th2: CD4


D. Th1: CD8

E. Tr: CD4



(pic of communication in a lymph node)

What will be the direct result of the interaction displayed in this figure? (This communication is emerging in a lymph node.)

A. Activation the a helper T lymphocyte

B. Activation of a B lymphocyte

C. Activation of a cytotoxic T lymphocyte

D. Clonal deletion that a B lymphocyte

E. Clonal deletion of a T lymphocyte



The function of dendrites in the adaptive immune response is to

A. Attack and destroy invading pathogens,

B. Process endogenous antigens for presentation on MHC ns molecules

C. Distinguish between endogenous and exogenous antigens.

D. Finding auto-reactive lymphocytes and also trigger apoptosis.

E. Degrade exogenous antigens for presentation ~ above MHC II molecules.



When immunization levels in a populace are high, _____ offers protection from epidemic for at-risk persons who cannon be immunized.

A. Herd immunity

B. Adjuvant therapy

C. Variolation

D. Contact immunity

E. Energetic immunization



Pathogens might be attenuated for usage in vaccines by

A. Genetic manipulation

B. Increasing the microorganism for number of generations in tissue society cells.

C. Treatment through formaldehyde.

D. Hereditary manipulation coupled with treatment through formaldehyde.

E. Genetic manipulation and/or increasing the microorganism for number of generations in tissue society cells.



What type of vaccine is the hepatitis B vaccine?

A. A recombinant vaccine composed of a solitary antigen of the hepatitis virus

B. A vaccine created by dealing with the virus with formaldehyde

C. Inactivated whole pathogen

D. Toxoid vaccine

E. Attenuated vaccine



An infectious condition researcher isolates the microorganism responsible because that an emerging disease. The microbe is get an impressive in the lav for may generations. A ready of the laboratory-grown microbe is treated v ionizing radiation and also then tested for its potential together a vaccine. What type of vaccine is this?

A. Attenuated

B. Toxoid

C. Combination

D. Subunit

E. Inactivated whole



The saliva that a highly venomous reptile is discovered to contain multiple toxicity compounds. What is a practical technique to providing human being with protection from the deadly results of a bite native this reptile?

A. Usage recombinant methods to prepare modified version of the toxins.

B. Prepare extracts of the toxins, inactivate them, and use lock one at a time in a series of immunizations.

C. Prepare antitoxin from the blood of civilization who made it through bites come prepare antisera.

D. Prepare hybridomas particular for each toxin and also use the result monoclonal antibodies because that passive immunotherapy.

E. Prepare antitoxins by immunizing a huge animal through the toxins, and use extract antibodies for treating exposed persons.



Monoclonal antibodies have the right to be provided for

A. Labeled antibodies in immunoassays

B. Passive immunization.

C. Energetic immunization.

D. Passive immunization and also labeled antibodies in immunoassays.

E. Energetic immunization and agglutination assay reagents.



(Pic of one assay)

The diagnostic assay stood for in the number is advantageous when.

A. Verifying the existence of a pathogen.

B. Identify the concentration of antitoxin in sera.

C. One immune solution is as well weak to be detected by other means.

D. One immune an answer may result in production of a mix of antibodies against complicated antigens.

E. Determining blood type.



(Pic through substrate & fancy product labeled)

Which form of antibody assay is stood for in this figure?

A. A direct ELISA

B. A western blot

C. One immunodiffusion assay

D. One indirect ELISA

E. One indirect immunofluorescence assay



Which of the adhering to is NOT taken into consideration a hypersensitivity reaction?

A. Immune system strike on the thyroid gland

B. Itchy eyes and a runny sleep in a dusty environment

C. A rash caused by toxicity ivy

D. Dermatitis at the site of a metal watchband

E. Breaking right into hives after eating strawberries



Which that the following immunoglobulins is produced by plasma cell in response to one allergen?

A. IgA

B. 19G

C. IgD

D. 19M

E. 19E



The redness, swelling and also itching that urticarial is as result of _____ release.

A. Leukotriene

B. Kinin and also protease

C. Protease

D. Histamine

E. Kinin



(Pic the a cabinet (I think) # 62 ~ above paper)

The events illustrated in the figure are component of a(n) ______ disorder.

A. Form I hypersensitivity

B. Kind II hypersensitivity

C. Kind III hypersensitivity

D. Autoimmune

E. Immunodeficiency



An accident victim receives a blood transfusion. Quickly therafter, he begins to have difficulty breathing, develops a fever, and experiences nausea and vomiting.Which of the following is the most likely interpretation of the events?

A. The blood transfusion was mismatched and contained pyrogens

B. The blood transfusion contained pyrogens

C. The recipient had actually previously been exposed to foreign blood team antigens

D. The blood transfusion to be mismatched.

E. The blood transfusion was mismatched and also the recipient had previously been exposed come the international blood team antigens



Which the the complying with could result in hemolytic an illness of the newborn?

A. Rh-positive mother and also Rh-negative father

B. Rh-negative mother and Rh-negative father

C. Rh-positive mother and also Rh-positive father

D. Rh-negative mother and also Rh-positive father

E. Either Rh-positive and also Rh-negative dad or Rh-negative mother and also Rh-positive father



an agricultural worker experiences an obstacle breathing, which becomes increasingly worse. Tests present inflammation and also damage the the lung tissue, yet IgE antibodies and also granulocytes room in the common ranges. With which disorder of the immune mechanism are this signs and also symptoms consistent?

A. Obtained immunodeficiency

B. Allergic reaction

C. Autoimmunity

D. Type III (immune comlex-mediated) hypersensitivity

E. Form IV (delayed) hypersensitivity



A human with no siblings or youngsters receives a kidney transplant. The kidney is an example of

A. Dermograft

B. Autograft

C. Isograft

D. Allograft

E. Xenograft



Which of the complying with statements concerning rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is TRUE?

A. Accumulations that antibody complexes bring about inflammation in and also destruction of the joints.

B. Over there is no hereditary influence ~ above the likelihood of occurring RA.

C. It wake up in humans and also animals.

D. The symptoms are due to damages caused through cytotoxic T cells.

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E. The start of disease is clearly correlated with having ben infected with a certain microbe.



(pic of HIV infection cycle)

The figure represents the HIV infection cycle. What virus-specified proteins are compelled for the occasions indicated by 1 and also 2? (Be sure they room in the exactly sequence.)